Throughout history, sports have been used to represent national identity. They have also served as tools for liberal nationalist political struggles. They have a strong connection to nationalism and have been associated with xenophobic attitudes.
The emergence of modern sports began in the late 17th century in England. A new form of rationalized competition emerged in the Marylebone Cricket Club. It was then that the concept of a sports record was invented.
The word measure initially referred to proportions. However, it later came to mean numerical measurements. The notion of sports record was also invented in the 17th century.
In the 20th century, we saw the advent of globalization. This meant that money and images could travel faster. This allowed for the development of cosmopolitan culture and transnational social movements. In turn, it also led to the rise of new forms of sports.
Modern sports are tied to complex networks that are interdependent. They are often bound to unequal power relations. This means that more powerful nations offer stiffer competition and a higher financial reward. On the other hand, poorer nations lack the resources to develop athletic talent. These nations often lose their best athletes to the more powerful countries.
Athletes, coaches, peers, trainers, and spectators all play a role in sports. This includes their roles during a game as well as after the game.
Emotions are a key component of the sports experience. These are guided by the subculture of the sport. They can be orchestrated or impromptu. They can be directed by the stage setters or by the media pundits. They can also be triggered by anthems or postgame victory celebrations.